Isabella had twelve pregnancies, yet only five children reached adulthood: There has been considerable speculation that some or all of Isabella's children were not fathered by Francisco de Asís; this has been bolstered by rumours that Francisco de Asís was either homosexual or impotent. , She returned to Spain in July 1876, stayed in Santander and El Escorial and was only allowed to visit Madrid for barely hours on 13 October. Maria (1482–1517). She was the first surviving daughter of King Philip II of Spain and his third wife, Elisabeth of Valois. After one last execution in 1597, those that remained were no longer actively persecuted. The archducal regime had plans to bypass the blockade with a system of canals linking Ostend via Bruges to the Scheldt in Ghent and joining the Meuse to the Rhine between Venlo and Rheinberg. Isabella spent her early childhood in and around the Château du Louvre and the Palais de la Cité in Paris. Isabella II (Spanish: Isabel; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. Philip was like, good idea, and minted coins of his own that said “Philip and Joanna, King and Queen of Castile, León and Archdukes of Austria, etc.” In the meantime, Juana was doing her best to hold it together, while — yes, still — being pregnant and having more babies and getting worse and worse post-partum issues. He pronounced his famous speech of the "three nevers" directed against the Bourbons, and delivered a highly symbolic hug to Serrano (leader of the revolutionary forces triumphant in the bridge of Alcolea) in the Puerta del Sol. He was also Duke of Milan. Isabella Clara Eugenia (Spanish: Isabel Clara Eugenia; 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633), sometimes referred to as Clara Isabella Eugenia, was sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries and the north of modern France with her husband, Archduke Albert VII of Austria. She had an older half-brother from her father’s first marriage to Maria of Aragon, the future Henry IV of Castile. , Cánovas del Castillo, the dominant figure of the new regime, became convinced that the figure of Isabella had become an issue for the Crown and wrote her a letter bluntly stating "Your Majesty is not a person, it is a reign, it is a historical time, and what the country needs is another reign, a different time", hellbent on avoiding the former queen stepping onto the Spanish capital before the proclamation of the new constitution in June 1876. Isabella was born in Royal Palace of Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. Circa 1640 Queen Isabella 1st wife of King Philip IV of Spain and daughter of Henry IV of France. Isabella was born in Royal Palace of Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. Infanta Isabella of Spain (12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633), daughter of King Philip II of Spain, was, with her husband Albert of Austria, joint sovereign of the Hapsburg Netherlands. His tutor, Dr. Juan Martinez Pedernales, who latinized his name to Siliceo, and who was also his confessor, does not appear to have done his duty very thoroughly. The marriages of Philip II, king of Spain, highlight the roles that women were expected to play in royal marriages of the time. Her son, Alfonso XII, became king in 1874. On 28 November 1857, Isabella II gave birth to a male heir, who was baptised on 7 December 1857 as Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María Gregorio y Pelagio.  Less than a month after passing through a cold categorised as "flu" by the physicians, she died on 9 April 1904, at 8:45 AM. As the Spanish King's Governor since 1621, the older, widowed Isabella alternated successes, such as that of the Capture of Breda in 1625, with failures and setbacks, such as the losses of 's-Hertogenbosch in 1625 and Maastricht in 1632. Philip received his education in Spain. The reign of Albert and Isabella Clara Eugenia saw a strengthening of princely power in the Habsburg Netherlands. Her studies presumably included politics, mathematics, and the languages Dutch, French and Italian besides her native Spanish. In the light of the news, Isabella and her entourage left San Sebastián and went to exile taking a train to Biarritz (France) on 30 September. Francisco de Asís recognised all of them: he played the offended, proceeding to blackmail the Queen to receive money in exchange for keeping his mouth shut. A year later, Isabella's younger sister, Catherine Michelle, was born. "Queen Isabella" redirects here. , Isabella mostly lived in Paris for the rest of her life, based at the Palacio Castilla. Philip III later married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina, who was a Neapolitan Bourbon. The Cortes and the Moderate Liberals and Progressives reestablished constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders and confiscated their property (including that of the Jesuits), and tried to restore order to Spain's finances. He was the son of the emperor Charles V, and of his wife Isabella of Portugal, who were first cousins. Isabella spent her early childhood in and around the Château du Louvre and the Palais de la Cité in Paris. Philip the Handsome (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), also called the Fair, was Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first Habsburg King of Castile (as Philip I) for a brief time in 1506. Most Protestants had by that stage left the Southern Netherlands. The Pope celebrated the union by procuration on 15 November at Ferrera. Born 1 July 1482 at dawn. Led by Marshal Prim and the Admiral Topete (himself an unconditional follower of the Duke of Montpensier), it marked the beginning of the Glorious Revolution. Albrecht died in 1621, leaving Isabella as sole ruler. Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, their older daughter, married her maternal first cousin and paternal first cousin once removed, Albert VII of Austria. After overtures to the United Provinces and to Queen Elizabeth I of England proved unsuccessful, the Habsburg policy in the Low Countries aimed at regaining the military initiative and isolating the Dutch Republic. Despite the alleged parliamentary supremacy, in practice, the "double trust" led to Isabella having a role in the making and toppling of governments, undermining the progressives. Infanta of Spain. Learn more about Philip’s reign and accomplishments in this article. Isabella I, Queen of Castile (= 11) Family . Thereafter, the government preferred to deal directly with the provinces. Isabella came on 6 may 1598, shortly before the death of Philip II, with the Act of Distance in the possession of the Southern Netherlands, which as a dowry by her father was given to Isabella and her husband.  Her corpse was moved from the Palacio Castilla to the Gare d'Orsay, and arrived to El Escorial on 15 April. The actions of the two rulers stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity. Isabella and Catherine grew up beloved by her father and her stepmother, Anna of Austria, Philip's fourth wife. Her effective reign was a period marked by palace intrigues, back-stairs and antechamber influences, barracks conspiracies, and military pronunciamientos. La correspondencia de Isabel Clara Eugenia con Felipe III desde las Descalzas Reales en el otoño de 1598", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Isabella_Clara_Eugenia&oldid=991498955, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Independent Sovereignty of the Netherlands, Isabella Clara Eugenia is a minor character in the, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 11:15. , In 1847, a major scandal took place when Isabella, age seventeen, publicly showed her love for General Serrano and her willingness to divorce from her husband Francisco de Asís; though Narváez and Isabella's mother Maria Christina solved the problem posed to the monarchical institution—Serrano was shifted away from the capital to the post of Captain General of Granada in 1848—, the deterioration of the public image of the queen increased from then on. Isabella maintained an austere, temperate lifestyle, and her religious spirit influenced her the most in life.  Her father was reportedly overjoyed at her birth and declared himself to be happier on the occasion than he would have been at the birth of a son. a favorite of Edward II, had been exiled the first time in 1307, and he returned in 1308, the year Isabella and Edward married. Following Isabella‘s death, Joanna became queen regent. , By September 1868 Isabella was a repudiated monarch, and, during the early stages of the revolution, instances of political iconoclasm carried out by the masses took place, leading to the destruction of many symbols and emblems of the Bourbon dynasty, a Damnatio memoriae. She later gave birth to Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain on 12 August 1566, and then to Isabella's younger sister Catherine Michelle of Spain on 10 October 1567. Isabella was not born to be a Queen. However, later portraits of the Infantin show a similar pendant worn as a hair clip which more closely resembles the one worn by her mother in earlier portraits. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, Portuguese: Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554 to 1558). In pursuit of that goal and to get their political agenda to all Flemish social classes, Albert and Isabella used the most diverse media. A Liberal Constitution ("the Unborn One") was drafted in 1856, yet it was never enacted as the counter-revolutionary coup by O'Donnell seized power. Isabella was born in Segovia on 12 August 1566, the daughter of Philip II of Spain and his third wife Elisabeth of Valois. Daughter of King Philip IV of France and of Jeanne of Navarre, Isabella was married to Edward II in 1308 after years of negotiations. Shortly before her birth, the King issued a Pragmatic Sanction to ensure the succession of his firstborn. Her maternal grandparents were Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. No record survives of her birth, but calculations based on the date of her marriage place it between between May and November 1295.  The extortion by her husband would continue and intensify during Isabella's exile.. [Isabella, Queen of Spain , Tochter des franzoesischen Koenigs... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Their reign is a key period in the history of the Spanish Netherlands. They were to reign over the Netherlands jointly and be succeeded by their descendants according to the male-preference cognatic primogeniture but should a female succeed, she was required to marry the King of Spain or the person chosen by the King of Spain. Isabella, Queen of Spain , daughter of French King Henri IV and Maria de Medici, was married with the Spanish Crownprince Philip . Isabella was short but of strong stocky build, of a very fair complexion, and had blue eyes, and had a hair color that was between strawberry-blonde and auburn. , She wrote her testament in Paris in June 1901, making her will to be entombed in El Escorial. Isabella refused, however, as the question of the Jews in Portugal was still on the table.  On 28 June 1854 a military pronunciamiento intending to force the queen to oust the government of the Count of San Luis, featuring Leopoldo O'Donnell (a "puritan" moderate), took place in Vicálvaro, the so-called Vicalvarada. Famous artist Sofonisba Anguissola, who served as court painter at the time, influenced the Infanta's artistic works. 2] Disgusted by her marriage, Isabella reportedly commented later to one of her intimates: "what shall I tell you about a man whom I saw wearing more lace than I was wearing on our wedding night?". Isabella was well educated. Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France (French: Louve de France), was Queen consort of England as the wife of King Edward II, and regent of England from 1327 until 1330. His mistresses had the status of concubines and exercised great influence at court. The resolutions of the Third Provincial Council of Mechlin of 1607 were likewise given official sanction. Isabella had a very good education. As Albert was the Archbishop of Toledo, he had to be released from his religious commitments by Pope Clement VIII before the wedding could take place. Under the Truce's terms, the United Provinces were to be regarded as a sovereign power for the duration of the truce. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536) was born the daughter to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. , On that very day, a pronunciamiento took place in Cádiz. The six following volumes in the series follow the descendants of Philip, including sons Louis X and Philip V, as well as daughter Isabella … She was the eldest daughter of King Henry IV of France and his second spouse Marie de' Medici. Isabella Clara Eugenia, archduchess of Austria, infanta of Spain who became the instrument of her father’s claims to the thrones of England and France; as archduchess of Austria, she ruled the Spanish Netherlands with her husband, Archduke Albert VII, from 1598 to 1621.  Prim (leader of the liberal progressives) was received by the Madrilenian people at his arrival to the capital in early October in a festive mood. Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. All of the marriages helped foster political alliances – either with other countries with whom Spain wanted peace in the interest of building more Spanish influence and power, or with closer relatives to keep the power of Spain, and the Habsburg family, strong.  She moved to Seville, where she stood longer and left for France in 1877. The visual arts, with the baroque popularized in the wake of the Counter-Reformation, was the perfect tool. For the historical Queen Isabella of Castile, see Isabella I of Castile. Shortly before her birth, the King issued a Pragmatic Sanction to ensure the succession of his firstborn. , Following the election to the Spanish throne of Amadeo of Savoy (second son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy) in November 1870, Isabella reconciled in 1871 with her brother-in-law, the Duke of Montpensier, who assumed the political management of the family. In 1837, Spanish legislation produced a constitutional monarchy and a new format of the title was used for Isabella: By the grace of God and the Constitution of the Spanish monarchy, Queen Isabella II of the Spains. The so-called Eternal Edict of 1611, for instance, reformed the judicial system and ushered in the transition from customary to written law. Since then, Albert and Isabella's goal became the reincorporation of the Southern Provinces into the Spanish monarchy. The archducal regime encouraged the reclaiming of land that had been inundated in the course of the hostilities and sponsored the impoldering of De Moeren, a marshy area that is presently astride the Belgian–French border.  It became the testing ground for the Spanish Monarchy's European plans, a boiling pot full of people of all sorts: from artists and diplomats to defectors, spies and penitent traitors, from Spanish confessors, Italian counselors, Burgundian functionaries, English musicians, German bodyguards to the Belgian Nobles. Isabella and Francisco de Asís were rather caustically described by 1866 by an English contemporary thus: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, Juan Sisinio Pérez Garzón, Isabel II: Los Espejos de la Reina (2004), , VV. Isabella succeeded to the throne because Ferdinand VII had induced the Cortes Generales to help him set aside the Salic law, introduced by the Bourbons in the early 18th century, and to reestablish the older succession law of Spain. Elizabeth bore Philip two daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566–1633) and Catherine Micaela …  She was succeeded as Governor by Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, the third son of her half-brother in 1633. Infanta Isabella of Spain (12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633), daughter of King Philip II of Spain, was, with her husband Albert of Austria, joint sovereign of the Hapsburg Netherlands. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Her daughters, Joanna and Catherine, were thought to resemble her the most.  She was of great importance to the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales, where she lived with her mother-in-law Maria. a favorite of Edward II, had been exiled the first time in 1307, and he returned in 1308, the year Isabella and Edward married.  The uneasy alliance between moderates and progressives that had toppled Espartero in July 1843 was already cracking up by the time of the coming of age of the queen. With the perspective of a civil war in the horizon, Isabella was advised to appoint General Espartero (who enjoyed charisma and popular support) as prime minister. However, international trade was hampered by the closure of the river Scheldt. Philip II, King of Spain, was born at Valladolid on the 21st of May 1527. She was the youngest daughter of King Carlos IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma.María Isabel's birth coincided with the rise to power in Spain of her mother's favorite, Manuel Godoy.Court rumour attributed María Isabel's paternity not to the king, but to the young Godoy, who became Spain's prime minister in 1792. After her husband's death, she became a nun. , The marriages suited France and Louis Philippe, King of the French, who as a result bitterly quarrelled with Britain.  The revolutionary subject has been however variously identified in historiographical accounts, and historians looking at social roots for the revolution highlight that peasantry, small bourgeoisie, and the proletariat formed an alternative subject alternative to burgueoisie, articulated through the progressive and federal republican forces. He was the son of Maria of Spain, sister of her father Philip II, and Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, paternal first cousin of Philip II. At any rate, her mother had ceded any claim to the French crown with her marriage to the Spanish King. She eventually returned to Spain, but in 1497 the King and Queen offered her hand to Manuel I, who had succeeded the throne in Portugal. Still, the Archdukes enjoy a well merited reputation as patrons of the arts. Isabella's reign was maintained only through the support of the army. She was named after her mother, the day of her birth, and the devotion to St. Eugenio, whose body her father had transferred the year before from Saint Dionysius of Paris to Toledo with her mother's help through her brother, the King of France.  Isabella II showed a special affection for the child, greater than that shown to her daughters.. Anne of Denmark wore her portrait in a locket as a public token of friendship and kinship.. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. Carlos' and his descendants' supporters were known as Carlists, and the fight over the succession was the subject of a number of Carlist Wars in the 19th century. During his reign Spain regained much of its former influence in international affairs. Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by Christopher Columbus under Isabella's sponsorship Isabella II (Spanish: Isabel; 10 October 1830 - 9 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868.. On 2 February 1852, Isabella and the Royal Guard were caught by surprise while the Queen was leaving the Chapel of the Royal Palace intending to go with her parade to the church of Atocha: Martín Merino y Gómez [es], an ordained priest and liberal activist approached the queen giving the impression of wanting to deliver her a message, and stabbed her. Manuel I, King of Portugal: 13. Princess Isabella is the sixth child and youngest daughter of King Philip IV of France and Queen Joan and the Princess of France and Navarre.. Isabella first appears in Find Us the Grail portrayed by Sabrina Bartlett.When first see Isabella meeting her father, Philip IV of France to discuss her marriage prospects. They formed a cabinet, presided over by Joaquín María López y López. Philip was very attached to Elisabeth, staying close by her side even when she was ill with smallpox.Elisabeth's first pregnancy in 1560 resulted in a stillborn son, followed in 1564 with a miscarriage of twin girls. However, her mental incapacitation added with Ferdinand II’s efforts in laying hands on the regency of Castile led the nobles to summon Philip I to Spain and proclaim him jure uxoris King of Castile in 1506. Isabella was one of the most powerful women in 16th- and 17th-century Europe. A stillborn daughter, twin of Maria. Her grandson, Philip II of Spain, was crowned in 1556. Piers Gaveston. After the Carlist war, the regent, Maria Christina, resigned to make way for Baldomero Espartero, Prince of Vergara, the most successful and most popular Isabelline general. He already had a male heir, Carlos, Prince of Asturias, but father and son had never developed a close rapport and frequently lived in conflict with one another. Both sisters were described as intelligent and well aware of their high social status. The accession of James VI of Scotland as James I in England had paved the way for a separate peace with England. Isabella gifted major artworks to the convent, including a famous series of Brussels tapestries. Isabella of France was born in Paris, the daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre, the daughter of Henry I, King of Navarre. La creación de la imagen pública de Isabel II en Galdós y Valle-Inclán", María Antonia Fernanda, Queen of Sardinia, María Amalia, Infanta Antonio Pascual of Spain, María Luisa, Queen of Etruria and Duchess of Lucca, Infanta Luisa Fernanda, Duchess of Montpensier, María Cristina, Infanta Sebastian of Portugal and Spain, Amalia Filipina, Princess Adalbert of Bavaria, María Luisa Carlota, Hereditary Princess of Saxony, Isabel, Princess of Asturias and Countess of Girgenti, María de la Paz, Princess Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria, Mercedes, Princess of Asturias and Princess Carlos of Bourbon-Two-Sicilies, María Teresa, Princess Ferdinand of Bavaria, Blanca, Archduchess Leopold Salvator of Austria-Tuscany, Maria de las Mercedes, Princess Irakli Bagration of Mukhrani, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz and Viscountess of La Torre, Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria and Hernani, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Isabella_II_of_Spain&oldid=991833282, Grand Masters of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Masters of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, Grand Masters of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild, Grand Crosses of the Royal and Military Order of San Hermenegild, Recipients of the Order of the White Falcon, Bailiffs Grand Cross of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint-Charles, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword, Burials in the Pantheon of Kings at El Escorial, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, María Isabel Luisa de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, 10 October 1830 – 29 September 1833: Her Royal Highness The Most Serene Lady The Princess of Asturias, 29 September 1833 – 25 June 1870: Her Majesty The Queen, 25 June 1870 – 10 April 1904: Her Majesty Queen Isabella II, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 01:37. She paid some visits to Seville. SPAIN - JANUARY 01: Isabella, Queen of Spain (1602-1644), daughter of French King Henri IV and Maria de Medici, was married with the Spanish Crownprince Philip (later King Philip IV). In order to combat urban poverty, the government supported the creation of a network of Monti di Pietà based on the Italian model. The years of the Truce allowed the archducal regime to promulgate legislation on a whole range of matters. Juana the Mad wife of Philip the Fair daughter of Isabella of Castilia Of her children two emperors Charles V Ferdinand I four queens Eleonora of... 1475 Isabella of Castile queen of Spain from 1474 Her husband was King Ferdinand V of Aragon and Castile they married in 1469 Engraved from a... Queen Isabella II of Spain Full length. , The First Spanish Republic that followed Amadeo's short reign was overthrown by a military coup started in Sagunto by General Arsenio Martínez Campos on 29 December 1874 that proclaimed the restoration of the monarchy and the Bourbon dynasty in the person of Isabella's son Alfonso XII, who landed in Barcelona on 9 January 1875. (Photo by Imagno/Getty Images) [Isabella, Queen of Spain (1602-1644), Tochter des franzoesischen Koenigs Henrich IV. , After 1875 she lived in a relationship with Ramiro de la Puente y González Nandín, her secretary and chief of staff. Her paternal grandparents were Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu: 6. Infantin Isabella Clara Eugenia (1566-1633), daughter of King Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois. Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. She would only marry Manuel if he would expel all Jews who would not convert to Christianity; he did this and they married. She was the first surviving daughter of King Philip II of Spain and his third wife, Elisabeth of Valois. Philip V, king of Spain from 1700 (except for a brief period from January to August 1724) and founder of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. Isabella's half-brother became Henry IV, king of Castile, when their father, John II, died in 1454 when Isabella was 3. Philip and his niece Anna banqueting with family and courtiers, by Alonso Sánchez Coello. After Albert's death, Isabella was appointed Governor of the Netherlands on the King of Spain's behalf. She married King Emanuel I of Portugal, the widower of her elder sister Isabella, and was the mother of King John III of Portugal and of the Cardinal-King, Henry I of Portugal. They had three children who died at a very young age, in 1605, 1607 and 1609. Isabella of France was born in Paris, the daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre, the daughter of Henry I, King of Navarre. (Photo by Imagno/Getty Images) [Isabella, Queen of Spain (1602-1644), Tochter des franzoesischen Koenigs Henrich IV. Days later, the situation was followed by a full-scale people's revolution, with revolutionary juntas organised on 17 July in Madrid, and barricades erected in the streets. 1].  After the subsequent decision to dissolve the hostile Cortes by Olózaga on 28 November, rumours about an alleged forcing of the queen to sign the royal decree spread, and Olózaga was prosecuted, liquidated as political figure and forced to exile, with the Progressive Party already being beheaded, in what it was the starting point of their growing disaffection from the Isabelline monarchy. Their father ultimately fathered five children by Anna, all of whom died in early childhood except his heir, Philip. Beginning in 1601, the Archduke and Archduchess ruled the Habsburg Netherlands together. The archducal regime ensured the triumph of the Catholic Reformation in the Habsburg Netherlands. The impact was reduced by the gold embroidery of her dress and by the baleen stays of her corset, and what was intended to be a stab wound to the chest only resulted in a minor incision at the right side of the belly. The recovery of agriculture led in turn to a modest increase of the population (and thus workers) after decades of demographic losses. Painted here by Sofonisba Anguissola in 1599. She was already 30 years old by the year 1600. Espartero, a Progressive, remained regent for only two years. , Dominated by the figure of Marshal Narváez, the Espadón ("Big Sword") of Loja, the so-called "Moderate decade" began in 1844. Maria (1482–1517). Brussels became a vital link in the chain of Habsburg Courts and the diplomatic conduits between Madrid, Vienna, Paris, London, Lisbon, Graz, Innsbruck, Prague and The Hague could be said to run through there. She served as regent of Spain during the Catalan Revolt in 1640-42 and 1643-44. However, the Parlement de Paris, in power of the Catholic party, gave verdict that Isabella was "the legitimate sovereign" of France. Isabella was born in Royal Palace of Madrid in 1830, the eldest daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and of his fourth wife and niece, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies.Queen Maria Christina became regent on 29 September 1833, when her three-year-old daughter Isabella was proclaimed sovereign on the death of the king. However, following two miscarriages the French princess bore two daughters with difficulty and died at the age of twenty-three from complications ensuing from a premature birth. 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